1. Or, band
3. Ranked, darken
4. 15 (6,000/2=3,000; 3,000/10=300; 300/10=30; 30/2=15)
7. Charlie is three, and Pat is eight.
8. Bob, Otto, Nan, Anna, Lil. (Of course, there are others. These are just a few that come to mind.)
9. The missing letter is Z (horizon, hazard, wizard, frozen).
Bonus Answer: Martin Heidegger
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